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The kind of environment inhabited by a particular species.
An indoor plant which requires a minimum temperature of 10-13°C (50-55°F) for healthy growth. Compare hardy and tender.
The process of gradually acclimatizing greenhouse or indoor grown plants to outdoor growing conditions. Usually used when talking about transplanting of greenhouse plants or seedlings. Can be as simple as moving outside into a protected area for a short time, to more involved methods.
Applied to annuals, this indicates that a plant is able to cope with temperatures down to 0°C (32°F) but not hard frost.
Half-moon cutter
Used against a board on the ground to recut the edge of a lawn.
Hardening off
Hardening off involves acclimatising plants to outdoor temperatures so they can survive outside without being damaged by frost or cold.Plants raised indoors in warmth are soft and likely to suffer if you suddenly expose them to the elements. But you can avoid this by gradually acclimatising them to lower temperatures for a week or two beforehand.This can be done by standing the plants in a sheltered place outside on mild days, just for a few hours at first but slowly lengthening the time until they’re eventually left outdoors all day and night. Alternatively, you can move them to a cold frame. Keep the lid closed to start with, and then admit a little air, and light gradually over a week or two.
This is an indication of a plant’s ability to withstand low temperatures or frost, without artificial protection. It is not an absolute measure and may be affected by factors such as shelter and drainage.
U.S. Department of Agriculture classifications according to annual minimum temperatures and/or lengths of growing seasons. Also referred to as USDA zone.
The impervious layer of soil or clay lying beneath the topsoil. Water will run off and plant roots can not penetrate the layer. Can be broken up.
Hardwood cuttings
Describes cuttings prepared from the woody mature stems of trees and shrubs, usually in autumn and winter.
A relative description meaning that a plant will normally survive outside with prolonged exposure to temperatures down to -15°C (5°F) without any special protection from the cold. Compare half hardy and tender.
Cutting an older branch or stem back to a stub or twig.
The process of a plant being pushed out of the soil that occurs when the ground alternately freezes and thaws in winter.
Heavy soil
Heavy soils contain more clay and are sticky and hard to work but tend to be more fertile. They often remain cold and wet in spring and need grit or coarse organic material to admit air and help roots remain healthy.
Part of the main stem bark removed when a semi-ripe_cutting is pulled off. A strip of bark and wood remaining at the base of a side shoot cutting pulled off a main shoot. Some cuttings root more readily if a heel is attached.
Temporarily setting a plant into a shallow trench and covering the roots with soil to provide protection until it is ready to be permanently planted.
A plant grown for flavoring, scented foliage or medicinal purposes.
Soft-stemmed, not woody. Usually used to describe perennials that die down and become dormant in winter.
A cluster of plants or roots with a pile of soil around it.
Hollow-tined aerator
Hollow-tined aeratorRemoves a slim plug of soil to allow water or a top dressing to reach the roots.
The sticky secretion produced by sucking insects such as aphids.
This includes both a dormant oil and a summer oil - used to smother eggs and developing insects on trees and ornamentals. The heavier oils are used in the late winter or very early spring, making sure the temperatures are over 4°C (40°F) but, before the plant leafs out. The lighter summer oil can be used anytime the temperature is below 30°C (85°F).
Plants that are grown and raised indoors in containers.
Hover mower
Rotary_mowers that float on a cushion of air.
A piece of equipment used to raise the humidity of the air in a room.
The amount of moisture in the air.
The brown or black organic part of the soil resulting from the partial decay of leaves and other matter. It is the stable form of organic matter that remains after most of plant or animal residues have decomposed.
The offspring of two plants of different species or varieties of plants; this can occur naturally or may be the result of deliberate breeding. Hybrids are created when the pollen from one kind of plant is used to pollinate and entirely different variety, resulting in a new plant altogether. The parent plants may be different cultivars, varieties, species or genera but not different families. A hybrid between two species has an ‘x’ in its botanical name, e.g. Viola x wittrockiana.
The science of growing plants in mineral solutions or liquid, instead of in soil.
An instrument used to measure the Relative Humidity of the air. Used in greenhouses.

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